Homework Set #2


  1. By experimentation, determine how the following code is viewed by the compiler. In particular, which if statement is the else statement paired with? With your answer, include the C code you write to answer the question.

    if (a != b)
        if (a < b)
            statement;
    else
        statement;
    

  2. Write a short C program that declares an array and modifies the elements of that array. Change the loop bounds so that locations are modified beyond the actual length of the array. Does the compiler give you any indication that something is wrong? Does the program execute without any indication that something is wrong? Determine the memory layout of the variables in the executable; you can print the addresses of variables using the & operator in C and the %p argument in printf. Try to add at least one variable that is stored immediately after the array and modify your program to show that the value of this variable is changed when the array elements are changed even though it is never explicitly modified. (Depending on the version of the compiler you are using, this can get a bit tricky. Try doing it with both global and local variables. You can also try using the "static" keyword with the variables.) Include the output and source code of your final program in your solution to show that you were successful.

    1. You would hope that a good compiler would alert you to inconsistencies between function definitions and actual function calls, either in the type or number of parameters. By experimentation, determine what your favorite C compiler (cc, gcc, etc.) does if compiling code with such mismatches. At a minimum, write a short C program with inconsistencies in both type and number of arguments and submit both the code and the error or warning messages from the compiler (if any). In your submission, identify the compiler you are using and the type of machine you are running on.

    2. It is much harder for compilers to catch problems with functions such as printf and scanf that have a variable number of arguments. By experimenting with some simple C programs, see what happens (during both compilation and execution) when the conversion specifications contained in a format string are inconsistent with the remaining parameters, either in number or type. In your tests, be sure to consider this problem:

      int i;
      scanf("%d", i);  /* The '&' was "accidentally" left out before the i */
      

      Include code in your response that demonstrates three such problems. Does the compiler help to catch these problems? Describe any indication the compiler gives you that there might be a problem. In light of our discussion in class on the implementation details of function calls and parameter passing, explain what actually happens when your code executes.

  3. Below is a memory dump from an 8086 machine. Each value in the table represents a byte. Addresses increase sequentially from left to right, top to bottom. For example, the byte at logical address 0000:002B has value 0x2B.
     Seg:Off  |  0  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  A  B  C  D  E  F
    ----------|------------------------------------------------
    0000:0000 | 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 0A 0B 0C 0D 0E 0F
    0000:0010 | 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 1A 1B 1C 1D 1E 1F
    0000:0020 | 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 2A 2B 2C 2D 2E 2F
    0000:0030 | 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 3A 3B 3C 3D 3E 3F
    
    Assume the CPU registers have the following hexadecimal values:
    AX:0000 BX:0002 CX:0000 DX:0000 SI:0001 DI:0000 BP:0002
    DS:0001 ES:0002 SS:0000 CS:0000 SP:FFFE IP:0100
    
    What will the values for registers ax, bx, cx, and dx be in hexadecimal after executing the following sequence of memory referencing instructions? (Hint: This can be very tricky, so watch out! Pay attention to segment registers, endian behavior, and operand sizes. Review the section Referencing Memory in the document 8086 Assembly Language for help.)
    	mov	ax, [bx+2]
    	dec	word [bx+2]
    	mov	bh, [bx+3]
    	mov	cx, [bp+si-3]
    	mov	dx, [es:bp+2]
    


Turn in your hard-copy solution for this assignment to the homework box before 4:45 PM on the due date.
Last updated 2 September 2016
James Archibald jka@ee.byu.edu